Peterson/Higgs/Goodman/Hogg Family History (from c1750-).
The chronological development of our family, mainly since immigration of its various ancestors to Victoria in the early 1850s; particularly the Peterson side and mainly derived from family documents, with some assistance from local historians in Bendigo, and research by my brother, Stephen Peterson, with relevant images inserted. A work in progress.
Peterson Family History, 1750-1889
William Hogg, our paternal great, great, great, great, great grandfather married Frances Alder in the mid-C18(?)1
Their six children were: Christian, Isabella, Susan, Francis, William and Andrew Hogg.2
Andrew Hogg, our paternal great, great, great, great grandfather married Frances Tindal, who died in the early C19.3
Their three children were: William (supposed to have been drowned on the coast of Newfoundland?), Frances (who married Thomas Gray of Holystone and Edward Tindal Ferdinand Harbottle, our paternal great, great, great grandfather, who was born on the 10 May 1780.4
Edward Harbottle married Isabella Bolton, our paternal great, great, great grandmother, who was born on the 16 December 1782.5
[1788. The first Australian colony was founded at Port Jackson, Sydney Cove and the British flag raised there.].
[1795. The first legal white massacre of Aboriginal people in Australia].
[October 22, 1797. French aeronaut André-Jacques Garnerin made the world’s first parachute jump on Parc Monceau, Paris. He died aged 54 in 1823, while working on a new balloon in Paris, when crossing the balloon’s construction site, he was struck by a falling beam, killing him instantly. Ballooners: beware of building sites].
[1803. Charles Grimes was the first white man to row a boat up the Yarra River, to Dights Falls, Abbotsford. He saw flood debris hanging 13m up in trees. Refer: 1803, 1837, 1839, 1844, 1859, 1863 and 1934].
Edward and Isabella Bolton’s nine children were: Frances who died in infancy on the 9 March 1810; William, who was born on 8 May 1812; Adam Gordon 1, who was born 14 April 1814; Edward Tindal Ferdinand Harbottle, our paternal great, great, great grandfather was born on 2 January 1816; Richard Anthony; John Skinner, born 5 August 1819, died 1 October 1832; James Barclay, born 29 March 1831; Andrew George, born 21 April 1825 and George Bolton Hogg born 12 May 1827.6
8 May 1812. William Hogg 1, our paternal great, great grandfather was born. He was a writer. He was married on 11 November 1832 to Isabella Scott, a servant, who was born 16 December 1782. He died on 11 November 1862 and she died on 3 January 1873, aged 89.7
They had eight children including: Agnes Isabella, born 9 March1834, died 16 September 1835, aged 18 months and 7 days; Frances Isabella born 11 January 1830, married 29 March 1854; Edward Tindal, born 22 October 1838; Margaret Neil, born 3 January 1841; Alexander Scott, born 4 August 1843; William; Richard and Adam Gordon 2, born in 1851.8
[16 December 1824. Hume & Hovell reached Corio Bay on the route of the present Hume Highway, Hovell thinking it was Westernport. This was not achieved again until in 1836, John Gardener, Joseph Hawdon and John Hepburn, the overlanders, drove 300 cattle. Next, Charles Bonney drove 10,000 sheep, and Alexander Mollison with 30 men followed with 5,000 sheep, 600 cattle, 28 bullocks and 22 horses in 1837].
1829. Cela Evans was born. (She was our maternal great grandmother???).
(Refer: 1876), Daughter of an ‘architect’ or ‘builder’.9 Married to Roberts.
2. Mid-C19 Family Tree
3. Mid-C19 Family Tree
4. Mid-C19 Family Tree
5. Mid-C19 Family Tree
6. Mid-C19 Family Tree
7. Manuscript copy of Births Deaths and Marriages records and Mid-C19 Family Tree
8. Mid-C19 Family Tree
9. Humphrey McQueen
1831. Peter Peterson (formerly Petersen, our paternal great grandfather) was born on 15 January, on the island of Læsø, Denmark. This island is in the Kattegat, east off Frederikshavn, in the northeast of mainland Denmark. Son of Sorenson Petersen & Mary Ann Johnson.10
The ferry connects Frederikshavn on the Jutland peninsula to the municipality of Læsø at the town of Vesterø Havn while Østerby Havn is the island's fishing harbour. Bangsbo Museum.
Stephen Downes wrote in 2002: Læsø its few hundred residents beg to be left alone, Its fishermen still provide superb sole, turbot and small sweet lobsters, but artists have lately joined the trawlermen and their families, valuing Læsø’s peace and clean air. Low-lying with sour soil, it is less than 20 x 7 km. A few narrow sealed roads link the two tiny towns, a couple of hamlets, the ferry terminal and a fishing port, low, thick forest of oak, beech and fir, and fields of crops.
Several compounds have rows of cottages farming mink for fur, and a small factory produces salt, by evaporating hypersaline groundwater from bores. The beaches are rarely used due the poor weather. A car might pass every couple of hours and privacy is respected. Today, the quickest way to Laeso is to fly from Copenhagen to Aalborg, get a bus to Frederiskshavn (an hour), wait hours for a ferry, then cross to Laeso (90 minutes), but ring Laeso’s only taxi before you leave Frederikshavn.
10. Family Bible, AGP, my visit to the island on 12 September 1973, which produced no documents and Annette O’Donohue & Bev Hanson, Eaglehawk & District Pioneer Register, Volume 4, N-Q, 2003, p 1087, No 6524 which gives that he was born in 1832 and gives his parents’ names
Herefordshire & Northumberland
11. Humphrey McQueen
1833. Henry William Higgs was born in Herefordshire, England. (He was our maternal step-great grandfather and our only English ancestor).11
1833. The abolition of slavery, although it does still exist extensively in 2011.
9 March 1834. Agnes Isabella Hogg was born and baptised in the Episcopal Church at Berwick-upon-Tweed, Northumberland and died on 16 September 1835.12
[1835. Melbourne was founded on the Yarra River, illegally by settlers from Launceston. John Batman signed a deal for 2,400 km2 paying the Wurundjeri in minor 1household goods and trinkets.
Two months later Governor Bourke annulled the deal, but omitted to hand the Wurundjeri back their land. Another settler John Pascoe Fawkner, hotelier and newspaper proprietor grabbed land for himself in Batman’s village].
[1835. The Colonial Secretary, Lord Glenelg, established a Parliamentary Select Committee on Aborigines '…to secure for the native inhabitants… the due observance of justice and the protection of their rights… and to lead them to a peaceful and voluntary reception of the Christian religion'].
[1836. John Gardener, Joseph Hawdon and John Hepburn, the overlanders, drove 300 cattle, the first to follow the route pioneered on 16 December 1824, by Hume & Hovell. Hawdon bought land, settled, and built Banyule homestead, Heidelberg. Next, drovers Charles Bonney drove 10,000 sheep, and Alexander Mollison with 30 men followed with 5,000 sheep, 600 cattle, 28 bullocks and 22 horses in 1837].
[1837 and 1839. Melbourne fences sheds, houses and horses were washed away in floods extending from Richmond to Collingwood. Refer: 1803, 1844, 1859, 1863 and 1934].
[4 March 1837. Governor Richard Bourke arrived from Sydney to inspect the settlement of Melbourne].
12. Manuscript copy of Births Deaths and Marriages records and Mid-C19 Family Tree
28 July 1837. Margaret (neéTough, also known as Tuff) Peterson was born, at Aberdeen, Scotland, the daughter of William Tough and Isobel (Isabella) Niven, our paternal great grandmother.13 Isabella was born at Eaglehawk and is buried there. There is no record yet of William, nor any other children at Eaglehawk. But Annette O’Donohue thinks Isabella had a brother Alexander and other siblings.
[1837. Alexander Mollison with 30 men followed with 5,000 sheep, 600 cattle, 28 bullocks and 22 horses in 1837 on the route pioneered on 16 December 1824, by Hume & Hovell. Refer also: 1836].
1 July 1838. Frances Isabella Hogg was born, presumably in Edinburgh, Scotland. Her birth was registered in the record kept for the City of Edinburgh.14
22 October 1838. Edward Tindal Hogg was born. His birth was registered in the record kept for the City of Edinburgh on the 4 February 1839. He died at Emerald Hill (South Melbourne) on 21 February 1857.15
[1838. David Jones, Australia’s oldest store, was founded in Sydney. The oldest in Melbourne, James McEwan, closed in the 1990s].
[1839. Melbourne Athenaeum, Collins Street, was founded; it is Victoria's oldest cultural institution].
[1839. The Melbourne Club was founded in Fawkner’s Hotel, Collins Street].
3 January 1841. Margaret Neil Hogg was born. Her birth was registered in the records of St Cuthbert’s Parish, Edinburgh, 3 February 1841, 25 August 1843. She died at Hotham (North Melbourne), on 27 July 1867.16
4 August 1843. Alexander Scott Hogg was born. His birth was registered in the records of St Cuthbert’s Parish, Edinburgh, 25 August 1843. He was married on 25 December 1866 to Eliza Miller.17
[1844. Melbourne’s biggest flood in its first decade. Refer: 1803, 1837, 1839, 1859, 1863 and 1934].
[1844. Australia’s oldest extant bookshop opened: Birchall’s, Launceston].
23 May 1845. William Hogg 2 was born. His birth was registered in the records of St Cuthbert’s Parish, Edinburgh. He died on 23 September 1878.18
[20 January 1848. King Christian VIII of Denmark died. Refer: 1853].
[1848. The year of European revolutions].
This was a series of political upheavals throughout Europe. It was the only Europe-wide collapse of traditional authority until then, but within a year, reactionary forces had won, and the revolutions collapsed.
This revolutionary wave began in France and spread to most of Europe and part of Latin America. Over 50 countries were affected, but there was no coordination. It included: demand for more participation and democracy; the rise of working classes; of nationalism; and regrouping of reactionary forces of royalty, aristocracy, army, and peasants.
The uprisings were led by shaky ad-hoc coalitions of reformers, the middle class and workers, but it could not hold together. Tens of thousands of people were killed, and many more forced into exile. The only significant lasting reforms were the abolition of serfdom in Austria and Hungary, the end of absolute monarchy in Denmark, and the end of the Capetian monarchy in France.
Denmark had been governed by a system of absolute monarchy since C17. King Christian VIII (reigned: 1839-48), a moderate reformer but absolutist, died in January 1848 during a period of rising opposition from farmers and liberals in the duchies. The demands for constitutional monarchy, led by the National Liberals, ended with a popular march to Christiansborg on March 21 supported by the German Confederation. Prussia led an invasion in response, but Britain, France, Russia and even Austria supported Denmark and Prussia withdrew and the Treaty of London of 1852 was signed.
Christian’s son and heir, King Frederick VII was unlikely to produce an heir himself, met the liberals' and installed a new Cabinet with leaders of the national-liberal movement that wanted to abolish absolutism but retain a centralized state. The king accepted a new constitution, agreeing to share power with a bicameral parliament, the Rigsdag. Although army officers were dissatisfied, they accepted this, which, unlike the rest of Europe, was not overturned by reactionaries. The liberal constitution did not extend to Schleswig which was to be governed separately, leaving the Schleswig-Holstein Question unanswered. The death of Frederick in 1863 produced an even deeper crisis.
5 April 1849. Richard Anthony Hogg was born. His birth was registered in the (Edinburgh) City Record and baptised by the Rev Dr Glover, Minister of Granside Parish. He was married on 10 June 1874 to Jane McLeish.19
Early 1851. Melbourne’s population was 20,000. Refer: 1853.
1 July 1851. The Colony of Victoria separated from New South Wales.
17 July 1851. Gold was first discovered at Warrandyte and Clunes.
October 1851. Gold first discovered in Sandhurst (or Bendigo).
For a time the Governor of Victoria, who the colonists tried to call Governor General, was paid more than the President of the United States.
22 November 1851. Adam Gordon Hogg 2 (our paternal great grandfather), of 13 Cardigan Place, Emerald Hill was born in Edinburgh. His birth was registered in the Edinburgh city records and he was baptised a month later by the Rev Dr Glover on 24 December 1851. His parents were William Hogg, writer and Isabella Hogg, servant. He was married on 23 May 1876 to Catherine Norris. Their daughter was Fanny Hogg (our paternal grandmother).20
[1851. The Buckley & Nunn store opened on present David Jones site, in Bourke Street].
[1851. Melbourne’s population was 123,000].
[April 1852. The first great gold rush to Bendigo].
[1852. Joseph Bosisto pharmacist started distilling oil in Dandenong Creek. Bosisto’s Parrot Brand Eucalyptus Oil is still available in 2010, distilled from blue Mallee gums, harvested around Inglewood, near Bendigo, manufactured by FGB natural products].
June (?) 1853. Peter Petersen (sic.), (our paternal great grandfather), emigrated from Denmark, from a ‘foreign port,’ ie: not British, on the Wilhelmsburg.21
Denmark around 1853, Danish immigration to Australia and the reasons for it.
Frederick VII refused to recognise the unilateral declaration of independence on 18 March of Schleswig-Hostein, the Danish-ruled, but largely German-populated combined duchies at the south end of the Jutland peninsula. When Prussia sent in troops to support the new government, war was declared between Denmark and Prussia. Denmark had suffered under Napoleon since 1807. The duchies were finally lost to Prussia in 1864, followed by a brief attack by Otto von Bismark, that further diminished the Danish empire that had once dominated the Baltic. Was this relevant to Peter (and his brother?) emigrating for Australia five years later? [Incorporate this below, and refer 1848]
In 1814, when the Napoleonic Era ended, Denmark ended up on the losing side, for it had stayed loyal to France for too long. It had to cede NORWAY to Sweden, but kept the old Norwegian sidelands of the FAROES, ICELAND and GREENLAND, but gained the DUCHY OF LAUENBURG. The Kings continued to rule absolute, however as elsewhere in Europe, the demand for a constitution and a representative assembly rose. Most delicate was the problem of SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN. Historically, the Duchy of Schleswig was part of the Kingdom of Denmark, while the Duchy of Holstein was part of Germany (the Holy Roman Empire until 1806, the German Confederation since 1815). However, the two duchies had been in a dynastic union for centuries, and the duchies' estates had merged under the motto up ewig ungedeelt (for ever undivided). A large part of Schleswig's population, especially in the southern and central part of the duchy, felt German rather than Danish. In 1831, King Frederik VI introduced CONSULTATIVE ASSEMBLIES in Holstein, Schleswig, Jutland and for the Islands, the voting right being tied to property. Local autonomy (self-administration) was introduced in 1837/40. In 1848, a NATIONAL CONSTITUTIONAL ASSEMBLY was formed, which in 1849 passed the JUNE CONSTITUTION. A bicameral parliament, consisting of LANDSTING and FOLKETING was established, with UNIVERSAL MANHOOD SUFFRAGE for the Folketing. The absolute monarchy became a CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY with policy-making by the CABINET now, headed by the PRIME MINISTER.
The German population of Schleswig and Holstein was unhappy with separate consultative assemblies being established for Schleswig and Holstein in 1831. However, Danish nationalism was also rising. In 1842 Orla Lehmann demanded the right to speak Danish in the Schleswig assembly, as well as the full incorporation of Schleswig into the kingdom (it still had a separate administration, as well as separate laws).
When the National Constitutional Assembly was elected in 1848, the German Schleswigers sent their representatives to Germany's parliament in Frankfurt instead, where FRIEDRICH DAHLMANN, professor of history from Göttingen and delegate for Holstein was elected president of the parliament. A revolt broke out in the duchies (1848-1851), military assistance from Germany did not arrive, and the conflict was ended with the LONDON PROTOCOLL guaranteeing that Schleswig would not be incorporated in Denmark. However, in 1851 the DANIFICATION POLICY continued as the LANGUAGE EDICT which introduced Danish as the language of church and of education in central Schleswig.
In 1863 the NOVEMBER CONSTITUTION was passed, unifying Denmark and Schleswig. It was a clear violation of the London Protocol and the Schleswig-Holsteiners again rose in rebellion, this time assisted by the Austrian and Prussian armies. The Danish forces were defeated at Dybbøl (or Düppel) and Denmark ceded Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg. The peace treaty foresaw a referendum for Northern Schleswig, with a Danish population majority.
Denmark still was a predominantly agricultural country. In 1813 the country had declared a STATE BANKRUPCY, and consequently prices rose considerably. Agriculture was in crisis, until late c1829, after which prosperity returned. Denmark sold its colonies in India (FREDERIKSNAGAR and TRANQUEBAR) in 1845, those in Africa on the Gold Coast in 1850, only keeping the DANISH WEST INDIES. Christian VIII died in 1848. There was a Cholera Epidemic in 1853, but railway construction began in the 1850s and gasworks provided street lighting in larger cities.22
For the story of a boy who flees the windswept coast of Jutland in C19 for Copenhagen which itself is narrow-minded and provincial. In 1864, Denmark has just lost the war with Prussia and lost territory to it. Feudal society was just then ending, when youths were free to follow their ambitions, refer the novelLucky Per.23
1853. Convict transportation to Australia ended.
1853. Catherine Norris 2 (our paternal great grandmother) of 13 Cardigan Place, Emerald Hill (now South Melbourne) was born. Her parents were Robert Norris, gas manager and Catherine Norris, (AGP. Her marriage certificate). She was the daughter of Robert Norris, Gas Manager and Catherine Norris 1 G(?)riffin(?). ‘A nice person.’24
-Check Australian Pioneer Index 1853-88, under ‘families’. Microfilm. Ivanhoe Library].
[1853. American ships arrived at Edo demanding access to Japanese ports for military and trading purposes and so Japan was opened to western influence.
Commodore Perry, aged 60, the leader of an expedition of 4 ships, led by USS Powhatan, anchored at Edo, now Tokyo, not Osaka as you have it. As you'd probably know, he was politely asked to shove off to Nagasaki, the only port in Japan open to foreigners, but equally politely, yet very firmly declined this request, threatening to blow the place to smithereens if he wasn't allowed to deliver a message from the USA President to the local head honcho. The cowering populace was understandably scared shitless by the black smoke belching ships, the likes of which they'd never seen, and the chaps in charge wisely agreed to Perry's demand].25
[1853. The predecessor of Bates Smart Architects was founded by Joseph Reed].
[1853. Dimmey’s store (1853-2012) opened in Swan Street, Richmond].
[1853. The MCG was constructed].
[13 June. 16 July and 28 August 1853. Large meetings of miners at Bendigo protest against the gold licence fee. Shots were fired into the air].
[July-October. The Red Ribbon movement].
[July 1853. Charles Joseph La Trobe retired as Lieutenant-Governor of Victoria].
[1 August 1853. The 13-m long, with four columns of names, Bendigo Petition was presented to Lieutenant-Governor La Trobe (without the signatures of Peter Lalor, or Raffaello Carboni) listing grievances about the licensing system, under which miners had to pay 30/- a month for the right to dig for gold and were fined if they could not produce a valid licence. La Trobe rejected all demands. It does include the names of Martin Petersen (sic), Charles Peterson and Thomas Peterson (refer: below), but no Peter Peterson, or Peter Petersen].26
13. Family Bible which gives ’Isobel’ and a letter 16 November 2005 from Annette O’Donohue, Eaglehawk Pioneer Register, 4 Browns Road, Devon Meadows 3977, email@example.com which gives ‘Isabella’
14. Manuscript copy of Births Deaths and Marriages records and Mid-C19 Family Tree, which gives her birth date as 11 January 1836.
15. Manuscript copy of Births Deaths and Marriages records
16. Manuscript copy of Births Deaths and Marriages records and Mid-C19 Family Tree
17. Manuscript copy of Births Deaths and Marriages records and Mid-C19 Family Tree
18. Manuscript copy of Births Deaths and Marriages records and Mid-C19 Family Tree
19. Manuscript copy of Births Deaths and Marriages records and Mid-C19 Family Tree
20. Manuscript copy of Births Deaths and Marriages records and Mid-C19 Family Tree. His Marriage Certificate states he was born in 1852
21. Public Records Office Victoria. ‘Unassisted Shipping Index. Index of Inward Passenger Lists for British and Foreign Ports 1852-1889.’ Fiche 13 and 14. His age is given as 20, but he was 22. 2007.
22. www.zum.de and J V Knud Jespersen, A History of Denmark, Palgrave MacMillan, Basingstoke 2004, Denmark, Austria and Prussia, in: The Living Age, 1850, pp 616-618, posted by Cornell Digital Library, Adolphus L. Köppen Wars
23. Henrik Pontoppidan, transl: Naomi Lebowitz, Lucky Per, Lang, (1898) 2010, ISBN 978 14331 1092 4. Pontoppidan won the Nobel Prize in 1917.
24. Manuscript copy of Births Deaths and Marriages records
25. Email to Richard Peterson, from Stephen Peterson, 12 November 2013.
26. Held, State Library of Victoria, Manuscripts Collection
August 1853. Peter Petersen, aged 22, arrived at Victoria. (Public Records Office Victoria. ‘Unassisted Shipping Index. Index of Inward Passenger Lists for British and Foreign Ports 1852-1889.’ Fiche 13 and 14. His age is given as 20, but was 22).
He came with Thomas Petersen (refer: Bendigo Petition, above), aged 24 and Christ V Petersen aged 21. proarchives.imagineering.com.au
Here the smart Briton … walks shoulder to shoulder with the flat-faced Chinaman, the tall and stately Armenian, the lithe new Zealander, the merry African from the United States, the grave Spaniard, the yellow-haired German, the tall, sharp-visaged Yankee, the lively Frenchman. In fact, every state in the world has its representative in the diggings of Victoria and the streets of Melbourne.27
By 1851, Port Phillip's (or Victoria's) population was 77,000 and Melbourne’s population was 29,000, but after the discovery of gold, 570,000 had arrived by sea between by 1861 and Victoria had produced over 1/3 of the world production of gold. A Canvas Town of tents in South Melbourne accommodated 5-6,000 people. There were no theatres, public houses, gambling houses, concerts or any public entertainment, so there was little to spend money on than illegal ‘sly grog.’
Presumably, August 1853 and 1855, Peter Petersen then travelled to Eaglehawk and Sandhurst (or Bendigo)
Eight portrait photos survive; none named or dated, presumably of our Danish relatives inscribed with the names of studios in Copenhagen. One of a young man has a strong resemblance to AGP.28
Bendigo, or Sandhurst?
‘Bendigo’ is a shortened form of ‘Bendigo Creek’, the name originally given to the goldfields in November 1851 and the name of the first post office that opened on 1 July 1852. Bendigo Creek flowed to Back Creek (near where Lake Weeroona is now) one of the boundaries of the squatting run known as Mount Alexander North (squatting) Run (later renamed Ravenswood Run). The first printed reference is in the Government Gazette 1848, in a describing The Mount Alexander North Run and referring to the creek as ‘Bednego (sic) creek’. The second printed reference was in letters published on 13 December 1851 by journalist and gold-miner Henry Frencham, one headlined ‘Mount Alexander’ published in The Argus, and the other headlined ‘Bendigo Creek Diggings’ published in the Geelong Advertiser. Frencham also used the penname ‘Bendigo’.
The Bendigo Creek was named after ‘Bendigo's Hut’, of a shepherd with the nickname ‘Bendigo’ who lived at the creek in the 1840s. He was nicknamed after the Nottingham bare-knuckled boxing prizefighter William Abednego Thompson, or ‘Bendigo Thompson’. The shepherd, was ‘some pugiltstically-inclined individual’ and given the nickname Bendigo by Thomas Myers, who from 1844-49 was overseer on the Mount Alexander North Run. Bendigo later ‘shot through to California when news of the gold rushes there reached Australia’ in the late 1840s.
The town which began to develop on the goldfield was at first known as Bendigo, from Bendigo Creek, though a popular name, was not official. The town was at first officially named Castleton, in a government notice 2 December 1852, but only for six weeks. In a second government notice, dated 18 January 1853, the name was changed to ‘Sandhurst’ after the Royal Military Academy. But the local newspaper has been from 1854, the Bendigo Advertiser. Also ‘Bendigonian’, is still used today for a resident of Bendigo, but also used during the time of the name Sandhurst (1854-91).
After a plebiscite on 28 April 1891, as a direct result of agitation to have the old name back, the city was renamed in 1891 to the more popular original name, although Sandhurst is still used by a number of organisations such as the Sandhurst Football Club and the Roman Catholic Diocese of Sandhurst.29
[1849-51. Lieutenant Governor La Trobe prevents any more convicts being transported to Victoria, sending one convict ship on to Sydney].
[1852-58. But 5128 convicts were sent to five floating prison hulks moored in Hobson’s Bay. Those on one, the President, lived below the water-line, secured permanently in irons and never went ashore, but most worked ashore on public works during the day, then returned each evening].
[1852. James Holden emigrated from Staffordshire to Adelaide. Refer: 1858].
12 July 1853. Margaret Tough, aged 17, emigrated from Scotland on the Allerton, arriving in Port Phillip on 30 October 1853. She was accompanied by Ellen Tough (24 years), Alexander Tough (27 years), Ann Tough (28 years), Thomas Campbell Tough (30 years) and Jane Tough (40 years).30
[1 August 1853. The Bendigo Goldfields Petition31 was presented to His Excellency Charles Joseph La Trobe. There is no Peterson amongst the names. It:
That your petitioners are the Loyal and Devoted Subjects of Her Most Gracious Majesty Queen Victoria the Sovereign Ruler of this Colony one of the dependencies of the British Crown
That in the present impoverished conditions of the Gold Fields the impost of Thirty Shillings a Month is more than Your Petitioners can pay as the fruit of labor at the Mines scarcely affords to a large proportion of the Gold Miners the common necessaries of life
That in consequence of the few Officials appointed to issues Licences the Diggers Storekeepers and other residents lose much time at each Monthly issues in procuring their Licenses
That the laborious occupation of Gold digging and the privation attendant on a residence on the Gold fields entail much sickness and its consequent expenses on Your Petitioners
That in consequence of the Squatter Land Monopoly a large proportion of Successful Diggers who desire to invest their earnings in a portion of land are debarred from so doing
That newly arrived Diggers must lose much time and money before they become acquainted with the process of Gold Mining
That the laborious occupation of Gold digging and the privation attendant on a residence on the Gold fields entail much sickness and its consequent expenses on Your Petitioners
That in consequence of the Squatter Land Monopoly a large proportion of Successful Diggers who desire to invest their earnings in a portion of land are debarred from so doing
That newly arrived Diggers must lose much time and money before they become acquainted with the process of Gold Mining
That in consequence of Armed Men (many of whom are notoriously bad in characters) being employed to enforce the impost of Thirty Shillings a Month there is much ill feeling engendered amongst the Diggers against the Government
That in consequence of the non-possession by some of the Miners of a Gold Diggers License some of the Commissioners appointed to administer the Law of the Gold Fields have on various occasions Chained non-possessors to Trees and Condemned them to hard labor on the Public Roads of the Colony - A proceeding Your Petitioners maintain to be contrary to the spirit of the British Law which does not recognise the principle of the Subject being a Criminal because he is indebted to the State
That the impost of Thirty Shillings a Month is unjust because the successful and unsuccessful Digger are assessed in the same ratio
For these reasons and others which could be enumerated Your Petitioners pray Your Excellency to Grant the following Petition
First. To direct that the Licence Fee be reduced to Ten Shillings a Month
Secondly. To direct that Monthly or Quarterly Licenses be issued at the option of the Applicants
Thirdly. To direct that new arrivals or invalids be allowed on registering their names at the Commissioners Office fifteen clear days residence on the Gold Fields before the License be enforced
Fourthly. To afford greater facility to Diggers and others resident on the Gold Fields who wish to engage in Agricultural Pursuits for investing their earnings in small allotments of land
Fifthly. To direct that the Penalty of Five Pounds for non-possession of License be reduced to One Pound
Sixthly. To direct that (as the Diggers and other residents on the Gold Fields of the Colony have uniformly developed a love of law and order) the sending of an Armed Force to enforce the License Tax be discontinued.].
[October 1853-February 1856. Turkish and Crimean War was fought between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the French Empire, the British Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the Kingdom of Sardinia, and the Duchy of Nassau, part of a long-running contest between the major European powers for influence over territories of the declining Ottoman Empire, in which 525,000 soldiers died. Most of the conflict took place on the Crimean Peninsula, but there were smaller campaigns in western Anatolia, the Baltic Sea, the Pacific Ocean and the White Sea.
Fortifications including the Right Battery, a bluestone ammunition magazine bunker and tunnel, at Williamstown Cricket Ground, beneath the grandstand].
[November 1853. Alfred Felton (1831-1904), wealthy benefactor and pharmaceutical industrialist, then also aged 22, also arrived in the District of Port Phillip, three months after Peter Peterson].32
[1853. Moritz Michaelis (1820-1902), founder of Michaelis, Hallenstein & Co (later Michaelis Bayley) tannery and leather-goods manufacturers, who pioneered the glue industry in Australia and first processed gelatine here, arrived in Melbourne from Hanover in 1853, not as a refugee, but as a free settler].
[1853. The Royal Philharmonic choir and orchestra were formed. Still going in 2009, they have performed the Messiah every year for 156 years].
[1853. Yan Yean Reservoir construction was commenced. At its completion in 1857 it was the largest artificial reservoir in the world. It was designed by James Blackburn, an English Civil Engineer and former London sanitary inspector who was transported to Tasmania for embezzlement, and after being pardoned came to Melbourne in 1849].
[1853. Mac’s Hotel, 34-36 Franklin Street opened, designed by Charles Webb, with brother James, built by James MacMillan. It is Melbourne CBD’s oldest continuously licensed hotel, and with its original name. Its subtle baroque façade in Melbourne basalt, with a firemark, both concealed by the C20 verandah. A stagecoach terminus for Cobb & Co, also founded 1853, by 23-year-old Freeman Cobb, one year older than Peter Peterson].
1853. Cora McDougall, Gold! Gold! Diary of Claus Gronn, a Dane on the Diggings. Hill of Content, Melbourne 1981. Gronn arrived in 1853. qv.33
This was the world of Samuel Thomas Gill, depicted in his Sketches of the Gold Diggers, J Luntley & Co, London, c1853, which included the plate: ‘Road to Bendigo diggings,’ his Sketches of the Victoria Gold Diggings and Diggers As They Are, HH Collins & Co and Piper Brothers & Co, London 1853 and ST Gill, Eagle Hawk Gully, c1852, watercolour on paper. Collection Bendigo Art Gallery depicts a roughly formed road (somewhat like Hartlands Road in 1951!) lined with tents, one with the word ‘STORE’ painted on its roof, with a horse-drawn cart and other horses and a 4-rail post and rail fence, mature trees and a large puddle in the foreground and many people, one walking towards the artist with a red riding coat and boots.
This may actually depict Mt Korong Road (Eaglehawk Road) and is probably our best indication of what conditions Peter Peterson came to across the world from very rural Laesø in Denmark, in 1853.34
1853. Samuel Mossman and Thomas Banister, Australia, Visited, and Revisited. A Narrative of Recent Travels and Old Experiences in Victoria and New South Wales, Ure Smith in association with the National Trust of Australia (NSW), Dee Why, NSW (1853) 1974, was published, which describes Melbourne, Victoria, Ballarat, but not Bendigo, the Diggings and the Diggers.
1853. Alluvial gold was still available on Eaglehawk goldfields, but becoming difficult to find. Puddling dirt from earlier diggings continued to reward. By the end of the year, crushing machinery pulverized gold-bearing quartz.35
[1853. Robert Hoddle was replaced as Surveyor-General of Victoria, by Andrew Clarke].
[1853. Reputedly the first train journey in Australia, from Sydney to Parramatta, though the first regular service began in September 1885, Melbourne to Sandridge (Port Melbourne)].
[1853. Daniel Robertson Australia Pty Ltd (brickmakers) was founded, initially to import Welsh slates, then manufactured terra cotta roofing tiles and only in 1967 began making fine quality textured pressed bricks].
[1854. The Census of Victoria showed Sandhurst and the surrounding gullies had a population of 12,212 men and 3,268 women].
[1854. The Public Library, Melbourne (now State Library Victoria, National Gallery of Victoria and Museum Victoria) opened and its first catalogue was published].
4 August 1854. James Talbot opened the first National school at Eaglehawk in a tent. (Noelene Wild, A Bird’s-Eye View. Eaglehawk Area in the 1850s, 2004, pp 19, & 20).
[3 December 1854. The Eureka Stockade battle, in Ballarat].
[1853- Branches of the London YMCA open in Sydney and Melbourne.]36
[1854. Victoria Bitter was first brewed at the Victoria Brewery, Victoria Parade, East Melbourne. Refer: 1889 and 1907].
[1854. The first census of Victorians counbted 236,798 people living in the colony. The largest group was English-born, with 97,943 people, followed by the Irish and Scottish].
S T Gill (1818-1880) artist, Western end of Queen's Wharf, Melbourne, 1854, Campbell & Fergusson, lithographer, James J Blundell & Co. Melbourne, publisher. State Library of Victoria.
S T Gill (1818-80) artist, Road to Eaglehawk , 1872, watercolour, State Library of Victoria.
S T Gill (1818-80) artist, Approach to Eagle Hawk Gully from road to Bendigo, Macartney & Galbraith, lithographer, 1852. State Library of Victoria.
S T Gill (1818-1880) artist, Sly grog shanty, Eaglehawk, 1853. watercolour, State Library of Victoria.
S T Gill (1818-80) artist, Eaglehawk Gully, 1852-53, watercolour, State Library of Victoria.
S T Gill (1818-80) artist, Eaglehawk Gully, 1872, watercolour, State Library of Victoria.
S. T. Gill (1818-1880, Eagle Hawk, Bendigo. 1852, watercolour, State Library of Victoria.
1855. P Peterson. There are two entries for ‘P Peterson’ on the Voters’ List of the Eaglehawk Area for 1855. One address is Jobs Gully (between California Gully and Eaglehawk) and the other in Eagle Hawk.This is the first evidence of a P Peterson in Eaglehawk.37 This is the first evidence of a P Peterson in Eaglehawk.
Victoria had the most socially dynamic goldfields in the world. They were not in eroded country like those in California, South Africa and Western Australia. The easily worked surface deposits at Castlemaine and Bendigo were unusually rich. An instant bonanza, they drew adventurous spirits from across the globe… For the first time in Australia’s history, there was strong up-country development.
In 1861, the goldfields held 228,000 people to Melbourne’s 125,000 and in 1871, 270,000 to Melbourne’s 191,000. …in 1871, Victoria’s gold towns held 146,000 people to 7,600 in gold towns in New South Wales.38
[22 May 1855. Miners first got the vote in the Electoral Act].
9 October 1855. Eve (Hogg?) was born. Registered in the record kept in the City of Melbourne, Colony of Victoria. Married July 1874 to Samuel McDougall.39
[1855. The first formal registration of births marriages and deaths in Victoria].
9 March 1856. Tom Roberts was born in Dorchester (or Shillingstone), Dorset (1856-1931), Heidelberg School artist and our great uncle (the son of our grandfather Bert Higgs’ mother by her previous marriage, Matilda Agnes Cela Roberts with Richard Roberts, journalist, editor and poet (1827-68).
I think Bert did look like Roberts.
After the sudden death of his father aged 41, Roberts aged 13 immigrated with his mother to Australia in 1869, to Dight Street, Collingwood, to join his mother’s sister, Annie Evans, whose portrait TR painted. Mrs Roberts remarried in Melbourne ‘a Mr Higgs.’ He died on 6 July (year unknown), when Matilda Higgs’s address was 163 Collins Street. In 1873, Tom Roberts studied at East Collingwood School of Design (Collingwood Tech). By 1874 they were living in Johnson Street and by 1879 TR was living at 170 George Street, Fitzroy.40
Interestingly, Henry Robert Bastow (1839–1920), later prolific architect in Victoria, was also born in Dorchester, five years later, Bastow studied architecture with fellow architecture student Thomas Hardy (1840-1928) novelist and poet, under John Hicks (1815-69) architect in Dorchester, Dorset. Bastow was one of Hardy’s earliest and closest friendships.
On 11 July 1856, Hardy, became articled to Hicks for three years. Hardy's father was a local builder. It is likely that Hicks became interested in Hardy after observing him assist on a survey.
Hicks's office was on the ground floor of 39 South Street, Dorchester (next to William Barnes's school). Hicks was genial, well-educated, informal, and indulgent. Son of a clergyman, Hicks specialized in ecclesiastical architecture, more specifically construction arid restoration in the Gothic. Hardy worked on the churches: St Mary's Athelhampton, Bridport, St Peter's Coombe Keynes, Dorchester, Powerstock, Rampisham, and Shipton Gorge. Reports on these projects that appeared in the Dorset County Chronicle are thought to have been written by Hardy. Hicks valued Hardy's draughtsmanship, and Hardy copied or traced existing plans as well as adding detail to Hicks's sketches.
Hardy was considered young for his years so his time with Hicks was extended for a further year,then Hardy entered Hicks's employment as a paid assistant in 1860 until he left for London in 1862. Hicks supplied a letter of introduction to Arthur Blomfield, and when Hardy decided to leave Blomfield's London practice in July 1867, Hicks offered him employment as an assistant with church restoration projects, allowing Hardy time to write. G R Crickmay took over the practice after Hicks's death. The poem 'The Abbey Mason' is dedicated to Hicks. Florence Hardy noted in 1927 Hardy's comment that: 'if he had his life over again he would prefer to be a small architect in a country town, like Mr Hicks at Dorchester.'41
Bastow was preparing for adult baptism in the Baptist Church. Hardy flirted with conversion, but decided against it. Hardy's religious life seems to have mixed agnosticism, deism, and spiritism. Hardy’s works, often set in the semi-fictional land of Wessex (based around Dorchester) generally belong to the Naturalist Movement, though several poems display elements of the previous romantic and enlightenment periods of literature, including his fascination with the supernatural. A leading Plymouth Brethren member, Bastow continued a correspondence with Thomas Hardy on personal and religious matters. and Bastow went to Australia and maintained a long correspondence with Hardy, but eventually Hardy tired of it and the correspondence ended. John Bastow, his descendant, was in my architecture year, from 1964.42
1856. The first church service was held in California Gully. The Methodists met in John Falder’s slab hut). A new 30 x 18 x 12 feet high timber school opened in November. (Noelene Wild, A Bird’s-Eye View. Eaglehawk Area in the 1850s, 2004, pp 19, & 20).
1856. Peter Peterson, California Gully, dated photo. It is one of the three photos of Peter Peterson held. This is further evidence of Peter Peterson in California Gully, so-named because of those who came there from the Californian Gold Rush of 1850.
1856. Responsible government in New South Wales.
21 April 1856. The eight-hour working day was introduced into the building trades in Melbourne, a world-first victory for working-class rights, solidifying Australia's reputation as an egalitarian paradise.
29. Wikipedia, accessed 19 September 2013.
30. O’Donohue & Hanson, Vol 4, p 1087, No 6524.
31. www.slv.vic.gov.au › Collections › Treasures
32. John Poynter, Mr Felton’s Bequests, Miegunyah Press, Carlton 2003, pp 11-18, which describes Melbourne in 1853.
33. From Mike Butcher, letter 6 May 2005
34. Reproduced in Alan McCulloch, Susan McCulloch and Emily McCulloch Childs, The New McCulloch Encyclopedia of Australian Art, AUS Art Editions, Fitzroy and Miegunyah Press, Carlton (1968) 2006, p 191.
35. Noelene Wild, A Bird’s-Eye View. Eaglehawk Area in the 1850s, 2004, pp 14, 17 & 18
37. Information held by the Bendigo Branch of the Australian Institute Genealogy Society, printed in Noelene Wild, A Bird’s-Eye View. Eaglehawk Area in the 1850s, 2004, p 29
38. Weston Bate, ‘Why is Victoria different?’ Victorian Historical Journal, June 2010, pp 8 and 9.
39. Manuscript copy of Births Deaths and Marriages records
39. Helen Topliss, Tom Roberts, 1856-1931. Catalogue Raisonné, Oxford University Press, Melbourne 1985, Volume 1, pp 31 (for a photograph of Mrs Matilda Roberts) & 67.
Ostrowo, Breslau, Prussia
William Goodman (our great great grandfather), was Jewish, from [the province of] Breslau (German) and, now Polish: Wroclaw), southwest Poland, but then in Prussia (Germany). His son was George Goodman (bald, one strand of hair! Perhaps he is the one whose photo I have on my wall?).
Ostrowo (German spelling) is 104 km due north of Breslau (Wroclaw) on Google Maps, but Ostrow (Polish spelling) is 229 km NE. It is a 42 sq km district.
The name Goodman was a Yiddish translation of the Hebrew word for good – tuviah, an old Hebrew name meaning ‘God is good.’ This could mean that Goodman was in fact the original name, and not the English version of something else, such as Gutmann (which means ‘good man’ in German).42 Refer: 1890.
The following text is under construction, with research done by Stephen Peterson
Stephen Peterson has been researching William assiduously, but has not been able to resolve:43
- William Goodman’s place of birth.
- His birth family name.
- The ship he sailed to Australia on.44
Without his original family name, presumably Gutmann/Guttmann or the like, there’s no point searching original sources in Europe, although he has done a bit of this, and come up with a few Gutmanns from the 1830s in Breslau, but who knows if they’re our man.
Similarly with the location: the two place names Breslau and Ostrowo appear together in numerous documents, but there’s no certainty which Ostrowo it is. There would have been no Jewish families living in Ostrow Tumski, the suburb of Breslau, but you would think this to be the most likely reading of Ostrowo Breslau, considering the towns of Breslau and Ostrowo are 170 km apart.
Now I want to put some effort into searching his mother, considering Rebecca is unlikely to have been anglicised, and similarly with her maiden name, Josephs or Josefs.
William died at Talbot, Victoria, on 2 May 1906, according to his death certificate aged 75 years and nine months, placing his birth in August 1830. He was the owner of Goodman’s Phoenix Hotel, Talbot, which is still standing. At his death, he and his widow, Catherine, had seven living children. William had been born into a Jewish family, but Catherine was Roman Catholic, and none of their offspring adopted the Jewish faith.
William’s place of birth birth
His death certificate states Ostrowo Breslau Prussia as his place of birth; his naturalisation papers state Ostrovo Prussia; his marriage certificate states Ostrowo Prussia. However, the identity of the Ostrowo referred to is uncertain, and there are a few possibilities:
- There was a suburb of Breslau originally (before the city became part of Prussia) called Ostrow (or Ostrowa/Ostrowo) Tumski, translated as Dom Insel in German, and Cathedral Island in English.
- Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland) was then in the province of Silesia, Prussia, about 170 km SW of Ostrowo (now Ostrów Wielkopolski, Poland), in the province of Posen, Prussia. William may have been born in the latter, and spent some years in the former.
- Two other similarly-sounding towns are Ostrowina, 24km NE of Breslau (Ostrowine in German), and Ostrawe, about 60km NNW of Breslau.
In view of the Ostrowo Breslau Prussia and Ostrovo stated in the afore-mentioned documents, 1) above might most logically be the precise location of birth. However two factors go against this: a) the island was primarily a religious precinct, with few families not connected with the church (catholic) living there since the Middle Ages – there was an exclusively Jewish area elsewhere in Breslau; b) at the time of William’s birth it was a Prussian city, and hence at that time the locality is likely to have been referred to by its German name (Dom Insel).
Research indicates that a) is most likely correct, but b) not so, as it appears the original Polish name, Ostrow Tumski, stuck and continued in use, certainly through the 19th century, and currently. It may have been that William actually was born on Ostrow Tumski, where some kind of medical facilities may have been available, but lived with his family elsewhere (in the Jewish sector) in Breslau.
Father: John/Jno Goodman, General Dealer Mother: Rebecca Goodman, nee Josephs/Josefs45
William before Australia
William’s application for naturalisation as an Australian on 31 May 1861 stated that:
- His native place was ‘Ostrovo in Prussia’, and
- He came to Australia from Liverpool, England in 1853, aboard the ship Tippo Saib. The ship’s name is uncertain as the document is hand-written and not all legible, however Tippo (or Tippoo) Saib appears likely.
The information that he embarked for Australia from England rather than Europe is confirmed by a court report in the Talbot Leader in February 1862, regarding a pawnbroking business. In the case William gave evidence he’d been associated with a pawnbroker’s shop in Liverpool.
The UK Census for 1851 lists a William Goodman at 11 Forrest Street, Liverpool, single, aged 21 (coinciding with a presumed dob in 1830), a cloth cap maker employing 5 girls, born in Poland. He was sharing the house with another 21 year old man, also born in Poland (it appears they travelled to England together), a silver smith. This information is corroborated by an article in the Liverpool Mercury of May 1851, stating a person had been convicted of stealing five caps from William Goodman.
From Alien Arrivals in England 1826-1869, shows that a W Goodman arrived at Dover from Ostend on 19 July 1849, aboard H M Steam Packet Princess Alice. The occupation of this person is listed as ‘March,’ probably an abbreviation for the French marchand, merchant, and place of origin is listed as Austria or possibly Austrova. The person listed below William on the list came from Breslau (hence the belief the two travelled together).
William’s voyage to Australia
A microfiche at the Public Records Office Victoria contains details of a single voyage to Hobson’s Bay, Port Phillip, by the ship Tippoo Saib (1022 tons), departing Liverpool 25 June 1852, via Calcutta, arriving Port Phillip on 29 September 1852. However, there is no William Goodman listed on the shipping list. There are two other men with the first name William, of a similar age, but a different surname (Logan and Chisholm).
These lists were drawn up on arrival at the port of destination, so perhaps William avoided having his name included then. There is no record of him as a ship deserter.
Another microfiche contains details of a voyage by the ship Charlotte Jane, departing London on 10 February 1852 and arriving Melbourne on 25 April 1852, via Adelaide. A Wm J Goodman, aged 28 and described as a shoemaker, was on this ship.
Shipping Arrivals & Departures Victorian Ports, for 1852, confirms the above shipping movements, including no record of a subsequent voyage by the Tippoo Saib, so it appears the date of 1853 in William’s naturalisation papers was an error. The result is that through the PROV there is no definitive proof of William’s arrival in Melbourne. There is a possibility he came on another vessel, via Adelaide, however the naturalisation document is very clear it was the Tippo(o) Saib.
All the documents sighted have his name as William Goodman. Whilst Goodman was in fact a Jewish name in use in Europe at this time, a more common version in German-speaking countries would have been Wilhelm Gutmann (or the like). In view of the above information about his travel to England and residence in Liverpool, and the reference in his naturalisation papers to Liverpool being the place of his embarkation for Australia on the Tippo Saib, it’s reasonable to presume if he did anglicise his name he did so upon first arrival in England. Certainly there would appear to be no other name used on the way to or in Australia than William Goodman.
The following points are uncertain:
- William’s place (which Ostrowo) - and date of birth.
- The original family name.
- William’s voyage to Australia
Further searching of William’s mother might assist, via her maiden name which probably wasn’t anglicised.46
NAMEN: Where Do Jews Get All These Names?
January 15, 2014
Namen, Namen, oy vey Namen, where do Jews get all these names? Epstein, Einstein, Bernstein, Weinstein, why are they so much the same? In the Pale we Jews had our names given on from one to next. Names that spoke out of our fathers were the ones we liked the best.
Avraham ben Yisrael was good enough for great grand-dad. Mordekhe ben Shlomo told you this was just the one right lad. And if two folks had the same name, we’d just add a town to it. Bratslav, Vilne, Lodz and Lublin, Minsk and Pinsk and Kreminits.
(CHORUS in English). Then there came the Prussians, wanted all their taxes. Followed by the Russians, army ranks to fill. Signed us up in big books, making us official. 1800 was when we swallowed that hard pill.
Some Jews kept on using Dad’s name adding –sohn or –witz to it. Mendel’s boy was Mendelsohn, Yacob’s son, J’cobovitz. In the city, for the business one would use the name prescribed. In the shtetl, with the family use of it would be a lie.
There were Jews in Frankfort’s ghetto got names in the Middle Age. Judengasse Jews were given names from plaques up on each home. Adler, eagle; Engel, angel; Nussbaum from the nut tree sign. Blum got from a floral placard for that fam’ly was just fine.
(CHORUS in Yiddish). Zaynen gekoomen day Preissen, gevult ale shteiern. Nakher di Roosen, boyen armayin. Af di groyse bicher, gevuren ufitsiel. Akhtsn yar hundert prubirt der tam foon sam.
Names were bought and names were sold but names from Toyre were forbid. Russians, Prussians, asked us, forced us, edict after edict scorned. Even great Napoleon just couldn’t make us use those names. It took more than a full cent’ry for us to then play their game. Katz and Cohn and Kahn and Kaplan all came from the priestly class. Levy, Levin, Segal, Chagall of an old mill, Klein meant small and Lustig happy, Kurtz was short and Baruch blessed. Scher a tailor, Gerber tanner, Kramer merchant, to the last.
(Chorus in English) Don’t hak me a tshaynik will you, namen akh oy vey iz mir. I’m a bise tsemisht what with namen comin’ out my ears. Fleisher is a butcher and then Nagel nailed and Becker baked. Names that ended Stein and Man were often just a German fake.
Wealthy folks bought names they wanted, Rosenblum and Lilienthal. Lieber lover, Koenig king, while poor Jews got names meant to smear. Borgenicht meant do not borrow, Klutz was clumsy, Billig cheap. Fresser tagged you as a glutton, Schmaltz just said you oozed like grease.48 (Chorus in Yiddish) Corey Weinstein is a semi-retired homeopathic physician who has played clarinet since childhood.He plays with his synagogue choir, a neighborhood jazz band, a leftwing marching band, and a few chamber music groups. For the past 45 years he has volunteered as a human rights advocate working with prisoners, particularly those in Supermax units in the U.S., and as a consultant to the World Health Organization’s Health in Prison Project in Europe. The clarinetist on the recording is Jordan Epstein.
Audrey Goodfriend (1920-2013), who wrote the Yiddish verse of this song, was the daughter of Jewish anarchists in New York City. At 18 she left home to travel to Canada and visit Emma Goldman. She moved to San Francisco to establish an anarchist commune in 1946. In 1958 she became a founder of the Walden School in Berkeley, where she taught for thirteen years. In her elder years, she joined a theater company, Stagebridge, and remained active in the Bay Area anarchist community.
|surface:||42 km ²|
|geographical situation:||Coordinates: 51° 39 ′ N, 17° 49 ′ O 51° 39 ′ N, 17° 49 ′ O|
|height:||123 to 175 m and. NN|
|Postal zip code:||63-400 to 63-410|
Ostrów Wielkopolski (German Ostrowo) is a district town and a principal place of the municipality of the same name in the southeast part of the Polish Woiwodschaft (large Poland).
The city was created by a nobleman around 1404, but for 300 years was insignificant, tax receipts were very low, due to a small number of inhabitants. It stood already at that time in the shade of the age-old and rich neighbour city Kalisch (21 km away) and was nothing more than a rest place for buyers at the important trade route Breslau - Kalisch - Thorn. Most inhabitants were field workers. The misery of the city troubled by the plague and large fires was so large that the Ostrower citizen requested the cancellation of municipal rights in the year 1711, in order to have to pay no taxes. It was granted.
An upswing came in 1714, as the new owner, the treasurer of Poland January Jerzy Przebendowski, the city had 12 houses, inhabited by 20 families. The expected new settlers were freed for six years from all taxes. By 1800 the small town had 2,500 inhabitants and a garrison. Those 500 Evangelist Germans established 1778 framework - a church, today the oldest building in Ostrowo.
it is not to be answered in the negative that the events of the 2 tragic for Polish national feeling. and 3. Division by the Viennese congress for Ostrowo without advantages were not: after 1815 with the whole province floats Prussian become, Ostrowo became a Prussian presenting city closely at the border of congress Poland, thus the powerful Russian empire: 19. Century brought fast development and expansion of the city to the industry. In the first decades to the Prussian rule Ostrowo belonged to the district Adelnau polarize . (Odolanów), most circle authorities: Land advice, land registry, register office, circle court etc. had however their seat in Ostrowo. From a field citizen city Ostrowo became now an important commercial town and a center Tuchweberei.Der export went over Kalisch to Russia. Only after 1825, when the Russian authorities protective duties were introduced, the Tuchweberei became unprofitable and many webers emigrierten to congress Poland, above all Kalisch and Zgierz. Which concerns the population, then the city had at that time roughly 8000 inhabitants, per a third German, Jew and Poland.
The second half 19. Century brought a real upswing for the city. 1845 approved Poland to that at all did not ungeneigte king Friedrich William IV, which knew the city of its attendance with Radziwill relatives in Antonin well, the establishment of a catholic High School - the whole province floats had only three such institutes. This pulled in so far from buyers, officials and craftsmen dominated city a crowd of highly educated people, which became professors at the High School. At this time also the first Polish and German newspapers and publishing houses develop. The center of the city intact in both world wars has until today a Prussian wilhelminisches Gepräge, with impressive buildings like the High School (1844), the district court with prison (1863), the barracks (1867) and the post office (1886). If Breslau were called because of its architecture “small Berlin”, then Ostrowo is a “mini mini Berlin”, with many houses in the style of the German period of promoterism.
Polish lineage of Richard, Stephen and Robyn Peterson
Mother: Essie Jean Higgs, b. 05.08.1917, d. 28.03.1956
Grandparents (parents of Essie Jean): Albert William John (Bert) Higgs [papa], b. 03.06.1885, d. 07.02.1958; Ruby Grace Higgs (nee Goodman) [nana], b. 04.10.1893 (at Maryborough, the second of nine children), d. 21.04.1979
Great grandparents (parents of Ruby Grace): George Goodman, b. , d. ; ‘Granma’ Goodman (nee Thomas), b. 1865, d. 1954
Great Great Grandparents (parents of George Goodman, grandfather of Ruby Grace): William (or Jacob) Goodman, b. , in Breslau*, migrated to Australia in 1856;49
1857. Little alluvial gold remained. The German Quartz Crushing Company had a 30 hp engine and crushing machine. The 1854 Census showed: 32,417 people in Bendigo, including 23,466 in tents. California Gully developed its own township. 85% of its adult males were miners.50
1858. Peter Peterson (sic) aged 27 and Margaret Tough (aged 21), were married, in the Presbyterian manse at Sandhurst, by Rev. James Nish, on 16 July.
‘St Andrew’s Presbyterian Church in Myers Street, Sandhurst was built in 1859. The Eaglehawk Presbyterian Church was built at the end of 1859. However, many couples were married at a manse, rather than in a church. Perhaps it related to whether they were regular church-goers?’51
One of Margaret Peterson’s shopping lists survives:
1 doz eggs
3 lb butter
1 “ tea bring C & S Home
12 “ tea bring 3 lb “
1/2 “ lard
1 “ biscuits C. Creams
bottle onions & pickles
bar Velvet Soap
3d Soap Extract’52
Between 1859 and 1879, Margaret and Peter Peterson had eleven children: Annie, Isabella, Peter, Margaret, Alexander, William, John, Margaret, Matilda, Albert and Thomas.53
[7 August 1858. The so-called ‘first match’ of Australian Rules Football (but refer: 17 May 1859) but games had been played well before this in Melbourne with a variety of rules and aboriginals had played footy-like games for thousands of years here].
[1858. All males in Victoria over 21 could vote. They no longer had to own property to qualify. The Public Works Office called tenders in June for police buildings at Eaglehawk, Sandhurst and elsewhere. There were many mining accidents].54
[1858. James Holden established a saddlery and leather goods business in King William Street, Adelaide, Refer: 1885].
A person visiting Breslau:
Breslau, 11 Septr (10 a.m.) 1858
I finish this with endless flurry & haste in my upper room, bedroom 5 stories high, in the Golden Goose (zur Goldnen Gans)6 in this ancient Slavic city, whh(thank God) I hope to quit in about an hour forevermore. Three nights; not good, and the last (after my Brieg7 Excursion) was by no means the best. This is as queer an old City as you ever heard of. High, as Edinr or more so; streets very strait and winding: roofs 30 feet or so in height, and of proportionate steepness, ending in chimney-heads like the half of a Butterfirkin, set on its side.9 The people are not beautiful; but they seem innocent and obliging: brown-skinned scrubby bodies a good many of them, of Polack or Slavic breed, more power to their elbow. You never saw such Churches, Rathhouses [town halls] &c,—old as the Hills & of huge proportions. An island (in the Oder here) is completely covered with Cathedral & Appendages.10 Brown women with cock noses, snubby in character, have all got straw hat-umbrellas, crinolines &c as fashion orders, and are no doubt charming to the house men.55
6 February 1859. Ann (or Annie) Niven Peterson was born.56
There are various unnamed and undated photographs are addressed to ‘Auntie Annie’. One dated 27 August 1874 is from M A Niven, of a young woman.57
[15 May 1859. committee, elected the day before, of new Melbourne Football Club met at Parade Hotel (former MCG Hotel, former Hilton Hotel), Wellington Parade to codify first rules of Australian Rules Footy, known as the Melbourne Rules after the club.
The committee included: Jerry Bryant, the publican who had played cricket for Surrey and involved with Surrey Football Club which had its own rules, William Hammersley a journalist who had also played cricket with Bryant for Surrey and been at Trinity College Cambridge University, James Thompson another journalist from Trinity now theatre critic for The Melbourne Morning Herald, Tom Smith Classics master at scotch College who had played in the so-called ‘first match’ on 7 August 1858, and Tom Wills the only one born in Australia but educated at Rugby School who wanted Rugby’s rules followed here, the others thought them too specific to Rugby.
Soccer was not codified until the Laws of the Game were written in 1863 in England, after founding of The Football Association (FA) on 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern, Great Queen Street, London. The only school represented there was Charterhouse. Cambridge Rules had been drawn up at Trinity College in 1848 at a meeting of representatives from Eton, Harrow, Rugby, Winchester and Shrewsbury schools, but were not universally adopted].
3 July 1859. ‘Christian Petersen of Copenhagen’ married Belinda Atkinson of Dublin, by Rev James Nish at the Presbyterian Manse [Bendigo].58 Refer also: 1853.
16 August 1859. Richard Fawcett opened a National school in California Gully.59
December 1859. A public meeting decided to build a Presbyterian Church in Eaglehawk.60
[1859. Horses were washed down Elizabeth Street in a flood. Refer: 1803, 1837, 1839, 1844, 1863 and 1934].
31 October 1860. Isabella Tough Peterson was born in California Gully, Sandhurst, Wesleyan, mother of Margaret Tough, our great grandmother, OR:61
6 December 1860. Isabella Tough was born62
[1860. H J Heinz was founded and first made baked beans].
[1860. McGills’ Newsagency was opened by the McGill brothers, sold to George McKinnon in the early C20, then sold by his granddaughter Robin Peasley to Campion Education in 2003. It closed after 149 years in June 2009].
[1860. Australians first fought overseas, in the Maori Wars, when HMVS Victoria provided a landing party at Taranaki, New Zealand, under Commodore Seymour of the Imperial Naval Brigade. Officially under the Articles of War they were the first Australians serving in organised, official military action in the face of the enemy. 2,000 other Australians who fought in New Zealand were in non-Australian units in several actions, including Kairau and Matarikoriko, where the 2 officers were Mentioned in Despatches].
[1860. William McPherson, later premier of Victoria, founded McPherson’s Limited, manufacturing (initially) and marketing of non-electrical household products and commercial printing].63
7 September 1861. ‘Peter Peterson, a German [sic] charged Mrs Monaghan [refer O’Donohue & Hanson, No 5588, Vol 3] with abusing him. While Mr Peterson had been cutting wood the defendant came up to him and required to know why he had been telling lies about her, intimating his liver was devoid of colour, and that he had been canine; furthermore, he was accused of being filthy, and all this in language more fervid than as above. Complainant, as was usual in such cases, had done absolutely nothing, and said less to offend the fair one! – The bench dismissed the case on account of the provocation given, and a counter-charge of obscene language was withdrawn.64
11 November 1862. William Hogg 1 died, aged 50.65
14 July 1862. Peter Peterson 2 was born at Sandhurst.66He was baptised on 2 October 1862 at Golden Square.
1863. Peter Peterson 1, was the owner of a weatherboard house at Mt Korong Road (263 Eaglehawk Road), net annual value of £12/10/-, paying 15/7 in rates. No. 3.
Of the 92 properties then in Korong Road, only 14 are valued lower. However, Noelene Wild explains that it does ‘denote quite a substantial house. The high property values occurred in Mt Korong Road as that is where the shops, stores and businesses were built. The usual nav for a tent was £4/0/-.’ This is the first evidence of Peter’s property ownership, only 8-10 years after arriving in Eaglehawk in 1853-55, when only six years earlier, 23,000 people are recorded as living in tents. He must have made some money.67
The house is elevated by three steps, timber, double fronted, symmetrical with a hipped roof and originally only a single room deep with an addition under the hip. Otherwise, it has been since substantially altered. No chimney survives and the verandah is recent.62Gordon returned with his father once and was shown the house. He remembered it being double-fronted, symmetrical and on the high (east) side of the road (it is actually on the west side), north of the Needle Mine. The mine is just in Long Gully, on the southeast corner of McGowan Street (boundary of Long Gully and California Gully) and Eaglehawk Road.68
[Jno (sic) P. Petersen owner of a tent, California Gully, net annual value £5/0/-]. (Eaglehawk Rate Assessment). Not relevant].
[1863. Floodwater was 3 m deep in St Kilda Road and covered South Melbourne, Port Melbourne and Albert Park. Refer: 1803, 1837, 1839, 1844, 1859 and 1934].
[1863. The Maori wars: the first commitment of Australian troops overseas].
29 August 1864. Margaret Peterson 2nd was born at Eaglehawk and died on 6 June 1868, at California Gully, aged one year and was buried at the White Hills Cemetery. (Family Bible and O’Donohue & Hanson, Vol 3, No 6524, p 1087).
White Hills Cemetery was originally known as Junction Cemetery, or Lower Bendigo Cemetary. Its Register is held at the Bendigo Cemeteries Trust, or the North Central Goldfields Library, Bendigo. The first burials registered at both Junction Cemetery and Lower Bendigo Cemetery were in November 1853. (Annette O’Donohue & Bev Hanson, Where They Lie. Early Burials on the Bendigo Goldfields 1852-1870. Annette O’Donohue, Bendigo 1993. Pp 56-75. Held).
1864. Peter Peterson 1, was owner of a weatherboard cottage with kitchen and land, Mt Korong Road (now Eaglehawk Road), net annual value £12. (Borough of Eaglehawk Rate Assessment 1864 quoted in O’Donohue & Hanson, No 6524, Vol 4, p 1086).
c1865. Grandma Goodman (neé Thomas?), our great grandmother) was born. Her parents had earlier emigrated from Aberystwyth, the industrial port on Cardigan Bay, Wales. Her elder sister had been born in Wales.69
[1865. Harold Desbrowe-Annear architect (1865-1933) was born in Bendigo].
[1865. The Melbourne Stock Exchange opened].
17 February 1866. Margaret Peterson 2nd died at California Gully, aged 19 months and was buried at White Hills Cemetery. No 4758. Presbyterian Section, Common Grave, with no headstone. (White Hills Cemetery Register, O’Donohue & Hanson, Vol 3, No 6524, p1087 and given as February 16 in the Family Bible).
White Hills Cemetery was probably chosen rather than Eaglehawk, because Eaglehawk did not have a cemetery until 1864, so the better-known cemetery was still preferred. There is no Peterson headstone in the Bendigo Cemetery. (Noelene Wild, letter to RP dated 14 May 2005).
9 April 1866. Alexander Simpson Peterson was born at California Gull and died in 1895. (O’Donohue & Hanson, Vol 4, No 6524, p1087, Family Bible, Birth Certificate, there given as 16 June and AGP).
His father was given on the Birth Certificate as Peter Petterson (sic), quartz miner, Windmill Hill, California Gully, aged 36, born Denmark. (Note: the different spelling, location correct age and birthplace). This is the first evidence that he was a miner. But if he were able to buy land and build a house only 8-10 years after arriving, he must have made money early. Sadly, there is no record of Peter Peterson working in a mine. Mining records, or rather the names of miners are scarce. (Noelene Wild, letter to RP dated 14 May 2005).
1866. Ann Gellon was born at California Gully. Her brother was James Gellon. (She married Peter Peterson 2. Refer: 8 August 1884. Her father was Niel Gellon, 1823-1875 and her mother was Ann Stewart, 1835-1916. Letter dated 26 April 2006 from Elizabeth Wallace, PO Box 380, Gol Gol NSW 2738. Ms Wallace is descended from James Gellon).
Ms Wallace is descended from James Gellon). Eizabeth phone me again on 9 februaruy 2014, and emailed much material the next day. There will be a Gellon reunion on 5 July 2015 at Caulfield RSL. [1866. John Peter Peterson was born in Sweden. Many references to him in California Gully, but not relevant].
1866-67. Peter Peterson 1, was the owner of a weatherboard cottage with kitchen and land, Mt Korong Road (now Eaglehawk Road), value £12. (Borough of Eaglehawk Rate Assessment 1864 quoted in O’Donohue & Hanson, No 6524, Vol 3, p 1086).
14 June 1868. William S Peterson. Born at Eaglehawk. (O’Donohue & Hanson, No 6524, Vol 3, p 1086 which has him as ‘William Tough’, Died in 1888. Family Bible and refer 1881). Why would he have his mother’s name?
[29 September 1868. Christian L Petersen, ‘native of Denmark’ aged 40 years, ‘deeply regretted by all his friends.’ (Betty May Jackman, Bendigo Advertiser Personal Notices. 1854-1880. 1992. From Noelene Wild, letter to RP, 14 May 2005, 1 October 1868). Refer: 1853. But he was not the same who emigrated with Peter, who was born in 1832, and whose middle initial was ‘V’].
43. Stephen Peterson, email to Richard Peterson, 29 September 2014.
44. The Public Records Office, SA is one source.
45. Documents in Australia, including William’s death certificate.
46. Stephen Peterson, 29 September 2014.
47. MP3 File of Core Weinstein, Namen (Names).
49. Breslau was part of Prussia from the 1740s, then became part of the German Empire in 1871. At the end of WWII in 1945 it became part of Poland, with the name Wroclaw. According to the website www.jewishcurrents.org the name Goodman was a Yiddish translation of the Hebrew word for good – tuviah. Tuviah is an old Hebrew name meaning ‘God is good.’ This could mean that Goodman was in fact the original name, and not the English version of something else, such as Gutmann (which means ‘good man’ in German).
50. Noelene Wild, A Bird’s-Eye View. Eaglehawk Area in the 1850s, 2004, pp 41, 42, 44 and 46
51. From Noelene Wild, letter to RP, 14 May 2005
52. Undated Grocery Docket – O’Donohue Collection, quoted O’Donohue & Hanson, Addendum Vol 5, p 1501
53. Family Bible & AGP
54. Noelene Wild, A Bird’s-Eye View. Eaglehawk Area in the 1850s, 2004, p 41, 49, 51 and 52
55. SJP, email 13 June 2014.
56. Family Bible
57. Photos, held
58. Betty May Jackman, Bendigo Advertiser Personal Notices. 1854-1880. 1992. From Noelene Wild, letter to RP, 14 May 2005
59. Noelene Wild, A Bird’s-Eye View. Eaglehawk Area in the 1850s, 2004, pp 62 & 63
60. Noelene Wild, A Bird’s-Eye View. Eaglehawk Area in the 1850s, 2004, pp 62 & 63
61. Family Bible. This differs from the Birth Certificate, see below.
62. Birth Certificate
64. EHPC, 7.9.1861 quoted by O’Donohue & Hanson, No 6524, Vol 4, p 1086
65. Manuscript copy of Births Deaths and Marriages records. O’Donohue & Hanson, No 6524, Vol 4, p 1087 and letter dated 26 April 2006, from Elizabeth Wallace, PO Box 380, Gol Gol, NSW 2738, for the place of birth
66. Family Bible
67. Mike Butcher 4 May 2005 photos and my earlier site visit
68. Borough of Eaglehawk Rate Assessment 1863, compiled, Noelene Wild, July 1994, quoted in O’Donohue & Hanson, No 6524, Vol 4
69. AGP and my site visit
70. Joan Waddington
1869. Goodman's Phoenix Hotel was built in Talbot (formerly Back Creek) after Goodman's original Hotel was destroyed by fire, with two large ‘ballrooms’ offering billiards and beverages. The Hotel was owned and operated by the Goodman Family until the 1930s. The largest building in Talbot, built to a high standard, 7 large rooms: 2 bathrooms, 2 toilets, large kitchen, laundry and pantry, with rear and front verandahs, open fireplaces and high ceilings.
The Bank of Australasia (now ANZ Bank), next door was built in the height of Talbot's gold rush when the town was known as "Back Creek", brick construction the bank property is a beautiful example of early goldfields architecture. It has 6 rooms, 1 bathroom, large laundry and two toilets. The two buildings are now on the one title.70 In 1864, Talbot had sixteen hotels.71
9 April 1870. John Peterson was born at Eaglehawk and died aged 34 years in 1903 at Creswick Hospital. (Family Bibleand O’Donohue & Hanson, Vol 3, No 6524, p 1087).
Percy Lindsay (brother of Norman, Lionel, Darryl and Ruby) was born at Creswick Hospital in 1870. Later, Ruby Goodman (Higgs) was also born Maryborough on 4 October 1892 and lived in Creswick. Was Ruby Goodman named after Ruby Lindsay?
[August 1870. the present Melbourne Town Hall, Reed & Barnes Architects, opened].
[1870. Britain withdrew its garrison from the Colony of Victoria, leaving it to its own defences. Refer: January 1882 and 28 October 1899].
Ballantyne, engraving, 1871.
7 April 1872. Margaret Peterson 3 was born at Eaglehawk, married Henry Jones in 1899 and died, aged 85 years in 1957 at Birchip. Longest lived in Peterson family until AGP? (Family Bible, O’Donohue & Hanson, No 6524, Vol 3, p 1087).
1872. Peter Peterson 1, Miner at California Gully. (Directory, O’Donohue & Hanson, No 6524, Vol 4, p 1087).
[1873. Colgate began the mass production of toothpaste but it in jars. In 1892, Dr Washington Sheffield of London manufactured Creme Dentifrice toothpaste into a collapsible tube in lead. He had the idea after his son traveled to Paris and saw painters using paint from tubes. In York in 1896, Colgate & Company Dental Cream was packaged in collapsible tubes imitating Sheffield, fount of the Peterson fortune].
24 June 1874. Matilda Peterson was born at Nerring [read as Eaglehawk. Eaglehawk is in both the Parish of Sandhurst and the Parish of Nerring. Noelene Wild letter to RP, 14 May 2005] and died in 14 October 1922 at Mt Korong Road, Long Gully, a spinster, aged 48 years and buried at Bendigo Cemetery . (Family Bible and O’Donohue & Hanson, No 6524, Vol 3, p 1087).
[1875. Swiss scientist Henri Nestlé invented milk powder and pioneered its blending with chocolate as milk chocolate. His company still operates].
[1876. The first telephone, Alexander Graham Bell’s invention. His company still operates].
1 January 1876. Cela Roberts (neé Evans, our maternal great grandmother?) of 7 Budd Street, Collingwood, married Henry William Higgs. They are said to be the parents of William Albert Higgs and our great grandparents (unproven?).
23 May 1876. Marriage of Adam Gordon Hogg, Gasfitter, 24 and Catherine Norris, Tailoress, aged 23 at 13 Cardigan Place, Emerald Hill. Presbyterian Church. (Marriage Certificate).
1876. Adam Gordon Hogg was born in England (Edinburgh?) was living at Sandridge-road, Sandridge, gasfitter, later gas inspector aged 24 and married to Catherine Norris (our great grandparents), tailoress, aged 23 at her home, 13 Cardigan-place, Emerald Hill, by a Presbyterian minister.
They lived at South Melbourne from 1877-84. Adam and Catherine’s children were Fanny (Tottie Peterson, our grandmother), Louie (McWilliam), Robert Gordon, Kate (Baird, Eva (Porteous), Hilda, and Ada Isabelle (O’Dea). (Their Marriage Certificate, their daughter Fanny’s Marriage Certificate where it is ‘Morris’ & Catherine’s application for widow’s benefit).
January 1877. The book: Rev. A.L. Simpson, Pioneers of the World’s Progress or Illustrious Path-finders for the Human Race, T. Nelson and Sons, Paternoster Row, London 1873, is inscribed: ‘Presbyterian Sabbath School California Gully. First Prize, Class I. Peter Peterson, Jan 1877.’ He was 46.
It has his bookplate: ‘This book belongs to Peter Peterson. If thou art borrowed by a friend, Right welcome shall he be, To read, to study, not to lend, But to return to me.’ It is embossed with: ‘R. Souter Bookseller, Sandhurst’. (Held).
14 April 1877. Fanny (Tottie) Hogg, daughter of Adam and Catherine, was born at Albert Park. (Catherine’s application & AGP).
14 April 1877. Fanny (Tottie) Hogg (our paternal grandmother) was born, eldest child of Catherine. She was born in Edinburgh (or at sea?). Her birth was registered in the Town of Emerald Hill, Victoria by Dr Haig. (Manuscript copy of Births Deaths and Marriages records and Catherine’s Application).
24 December 1877. Albert Anderson Peterson (our paternal grandfather), was born at Nerrina (also known as Little Bendigo and actually 5 km northeast of Ballarat). Married 6 June to Fanny Hogg. He died in 1950 at Richmond aged 72 years. (Family Bible, Extract of Birth Entry, Office of the Victorian Government Statist, 28 December 1911. Ref: No.2163 and O’Donohue & Hanson, No 6524, Vol 3, p 1087 who give his birth-date as ‘1878’).
1877. ‘Peter Peterson’ 1 signed the petition for State School 123 California Gully, which opened in 1878 (?). It was locally known as Belltopper Hill School, due to a colourful anecdote. The ‘present’ building opened on 2 July 1883. An ‘old plan’ shows needlework, cookery (both soon closed) and woodwork rooms. (Quoted in O’Donohue & Hanson, No 6524, Vol 3, p 1086 and L J Blake, Vision & Realisation, Vol 2, pp 432, 433 & 522, which includes a splendid photo of the school).
It had replaced SS156 California Hill, which operated from 12 October 1857 till 31 December 1878, whose building still survives in School Street with ‘National’ still on its wall. It became a National school from 1861 then a Common school. Blake says had it in turn had replaced ‘Roper’s school’, established in a slab hut by R W Fawcett in 1859 But that is after 1857! The history in Blake is confused. It became a National school from 1861 and its building was erected in 1862. After 1878, re-opened as an adjunct of SS2120 Long Gully. It later became a mechanic’s institute then a public hall.
The first Peterson children would have been of school age from 1871, initially probably at SS156 California Hill in School Street, then from 1878 at SS123 California Gully in Staley Street and from 1883 in the new building depicted.
9 June 1878. Robert Gordon Hogg was born in South Melbourne. His birth was registered in the Town of Emerald Hill (South Melbourne), Victoria by Dr Haig. of the Fire Station, Elsternwick Later of Five (?) Street, Elsternwick (Catherine’s application). A fireman, he attended the famous Craig Williamson department store fire, cnr Flinders and Elizabeth Streets, opposite Hosie’s Hotel. A sheet of roofing fell so close it took all the buttons off his tunic. (Manuscript copy of Births Deaths and Marriages records, Catherine’s Application and AGP).
? 20 June 1878. Kate Hogg (Baird) was born. Later of 72 Perth Street, Prahan. (Catherine’s application).
1878. Peter Peterson 1. House and land, Californian Gully with a value of £15. (Borough of Eaglehawk Rate Assessment 1878 quoted in O’Donohue & Hanson, No 6524, Vol 4, p 1086).
10 September 1879. Thomas Christian Peterson was born at California Gully. In 1895 (qv) he was still living at California Gully, he became a member of the local Independant Order of Rechabites. In 1916, he was a miner occupying a house in Youlden Street with a value of £15 and entitled to one vote. AGP thinks he became a lawyer, almost a judge, when he died. There is still a prominent law firm in Bendigo with Peterson in its name: Peterson Westbrook Cameron, 121 McCrae Street, Bendigo, 3550, (03) 5443 9499 (Family Bible, O’Donohue & Hanson, No 6524, Vol 3, p 1087 & AGP).
24 December 1879. Lou(ise) Hogg (McWilliam) was born, later lived at Castlemaine. Gordon bought his piano from her. Her children were: Tom, Ron (a no-hoper), Eva (married Alec), and Dot (the best). They were Gordon’s cousins. Lou stayed with Gordon’s parents when they died. She was ‘under a drop’ (?), a weakling and always grizzling. Eva and Alec took over Knowles Street after Gordon’s parents died. (Catherine’s application & AGP).
24 December 1879. Louie (Hogg) McWilliam of Castlemaine was born in South Melbourne. Her birth was registered in the Town of Emerald Hill, Victoria by Dr Haigh. (Manuscript copy of Births Deaths and Marriages records and Catherine’s Application).
1880. Peter Peterson 1. House and land, Californian Gully, £13 pa nav. (Borough of Eaglehawk Rate Assessment 1878 quoted in O’Donohue & Hanson, No 6524, Vol 3, p 1086).
Alistair Knox’s father Frank, until he was twelve old, had lived with his family at Chelsworth on a farm on the Yarra River adjacent to where the Burke Road bridge now stands, 10 km from Melbourne. There were only three other houses in East Ivanhoe in 1880. Part of the Chelsworth farm has since become the East Ivanhoe Golf Course, so that much of it remains essentially the same as when they lived there. Remnants of the treelined drive which once enhanced the entrance to the property still remain.74
1881. P Peterson 1, miner, lived at Mt Korong Road, California Gully. (G. Stevens & J.W. Burrows, Sandhurst and Echuca Districts’ Directory for 1881-2-3. Sandhurst 1881. P 139).
1881. P Peterson, bootmaker, Mt Korong Road. (G. Stevens & J.W. Burrows, Sandhurst and Echuca Districts’ Directory for 1881-2-3. Sandhurst 1881. P139).
19 January 1881. W. Petersen (sic), aged 13, won a book prize, (The Standard Reciter, edited and selected by J.E Carpenter, published by George Routledge and Sons, The Broadway, Ludgate 1867) for singing from the ‘Ancient Australian Foresters, Adult Court of Court Queen’, at Sandhurst, on 19 January. The book was the gift of Bro. J. Ernshaw. (Book inscription. The book is held).
The Ancient Order of Foresters is a friendly society or lodge. It offered sickness and funeral benefits and social gatherings to members and their families. Its headquarters was Foresters Hall, now part of RMIT University in La Trobe Street.
It is said that William became a lawyer. (If so, he was the first known professional on either side of the family, before me). There is still a firm of lawyers in Bendigo with Peterson in the business name. A A Peterson said William had the ability to become a judge. (AGP). But, William died aged 20 (refer: 1888).
A.O.F. sashes, the smaller one inscribed: ‘Unity, Benevolence & Concord’ and the other also inscribed: ‘PCR. Ancient Order of Foresters. Court Robin Hood. 4004.’ (Two painted green satin sashes with red fringes. Held).
1881. Cela Higgs died of heart failure, 16 July, aged 52. Buried Church of England, (McQueen). So how can William Albert Higgs, purportedly born 1885, be her son?
20 December 1881. Eva (Hogg) Porteous, Wavalock? Street, Brunswick. Born at South Melbourne. Registered by Dr Haigh in the Town of Emerald Hill (South Melbourne). (Manuscript copy of Births Deaths and Marriages records and Catherine’s Application).
1881. P. Peterson 1, miner, lived at Mt Korong Road, California Gully. (G. Stevens & J.W. Burrows, Sandhurst and Echuca Districts’ Directory for 1881-2-3. Sandhurst 1881. P 139).
1881. Peter Peterson 1. House and land, California Gully, £18 pa . (Borough of Eaglehawk Rate Assessment 1881, quoted in O’Donohue & Hanson, No 6524, Vol 3, p 1086).
[January 1882. There were fears of a Russia invasion when three Russian ships, the Afrika, Vestnik, and Platon, were sighted near Port Philip in 1882. Despite hysteria generated by the media in Melbourne, no invasion ensued].
[1882. Electricity was first introduced to Melbourne].
1882. Peter Peterson 1, miner, owner of house and land, at California Gully, No. 1285. (Borough of Eaglehawk Rate Book, 1882, transcript. Held).
18 June 1883. Annie N(iven) Peterson ‘eldest daughter of Mr P. Peterson, California Gully, Eaglehawk was married to William Calverley ‘by Rev R Lewers at the residence of the bride’s father. Lancashire papers please copy.’
He was son of James Calverley (miner, engineer, speculator. manager, then director and owner of the Little Johnston Reef Quartz Mining Co.
In 1880, his California Gully house, cottage and land was valued at £50. His wife was Mary (neé Hill) Calverey. (Betty May Jackman, Bendigo Advertiser Personal Notices. 1854-1880. 1992. From Noelene Wild, letter to RP, 14 May 2005, Annette O’Donohue & Bev Hanson, Eaglehawk & District Pioneer Register. Vol. 1 - ABC. No 1154, p 138 and Family Bible).
The Calverey house survives at 154 Eaglehawk Road, Long Gully. It is on the high (east) side also, nearer towards Bendigo. It is symmetrical, double-fronted, hip-roofed, in white-painted ashlar stone, with two symmetrical deeply moulded chimneys and a balustraded concave hipped verandah. There are still Calverleys in Bendigo.
[1883: Tom Roberts was in Granada, Spain, doing his first plein air paintings.
1883-97: Tom Roberts, was painting with Conder, McCubbin, Streeton and Jane Sutherland, the Heidelberg School].
20 (or 26) June 1883. Kate (Hogg) Baird of 72 Perth Street, Prahan was born. Her birth was registered by Dr Haigh in the Town of Emerald Hill, (South Melbourne). (Manuscript copy of Births Deaths and Marriages records and Catherine’s Application. Held).
26 January 1884. Ada Hogg was born. (Catherine’s application. Held).
1884. The Hogg family moved from South Melbourne to 2 Normanby-street, Moonee Ponds, until 1898. (Catherine’s Application. Held).
1884. St. Johannis. Evangelium. Oversat Dansk og Engelsk. Brittiske og Udenlandske Bibelselskabs Bekostning. London 1884. Inscribed: ‘St Johannes Evangelium kaa Dansk og Engel. B. H. L. Bjornsen, Veskeig, Lasö, Danmark.’ (Held).
29 February 1884. Peter Peterson [1 or 2?] was a juror in the inquest regarding George Crossman, held White Horse Hotel, California Gully (quoted in O’Donohue & Hanson, No 6524, Vol 4, p 1086. See also: p 1789, Vol 1).
[On 24 March 1884 at Dr Lubievski’s residence, Sydney, by the Rev Fullerton, Charles John Dennis Combe MD LMRCP Edinburgh, of Cootamundra, NSW … to Agnes Christienne Peterson, late of Sandhurst, Vic, youngest daughter of Captain Christian Peterson, late of the Royal Danish Navy. (Betty May Jackman, Bendigo Advertiser Personal Notices. 1854-1880. 1992. From Noelene Wild, letter to RP, 14 May 2005, 13 May 1884). Relevant?]
8 August 1884. Peter Peterson (Jnr) ‘eldest son of Peter Peterson was married to Ann(ie) Gellon, third daughter of of the late Neil Gellon, both of California Gully’ at the Manse, Eaglehawk by the Rev L. Lewers. (Betty May Jackman, Bendigo Advertiser Personal Notices. 1854-1880. 1992, 12 August 1884. From Noelene Wild, letter to RP, 14 May 2005, O’Donohue & Hanson, Vol 2, No 2863 and Vol 3, p 1087, No 6524 and Family Bible. Held).
[1884. In the 1880s Boom, 30% of Melbourne hotel licences were held by (mostly married) women. The Supreme Court of Victoria ruled that married women were not entitled to be licensees. The breweries lobbied for the rights of their women customers, and within a month, parliament enacted specific legislation protecting married women’s right to a liqour licence and by 1906, over 50% of Melbourne hotel licences were held by women. In 1906, the Select Committee on Tied Houses reported to parliament that 60% of Victoria’s hotels were tied to breweries. The tied house system supported widows who could not otherwise afford to bring up a family and conmfortably retire, rather than absentee landlords.
3 June 1885. [But more likely to have been 1881-83. Refer: 1881. Perhaps his mother died in childbirth. Check Essie Jean Higgs birth certificate for information about her and her father’s birthdate. Births, Deaths and Marriages site, $17.50]. William Albert (John) Higgs and his twin sister Lily (Lilian) were born. She was a fine pianist. Their (older?) siblings were: ‘Rene’ (Irene, born 15 March, year?), Leslie (born?), Gertie (born 16 August, year?) (Birthday Book. Held).
John Higgs, contractor and Mary Hartley Higgs, were their parents. Did John Higgs marry again after Cela died? (His Marriage Certificate, The Birthday Motto Book, held and AGP. But refer: 1876).
Bert Higgs’s piano playing, included: Frederic Chopin, Introduction and Polonaise Brilliante in C, Op. 3, Softly Awakes My Heart (Samson & Delilah), Franz List, Liebestraüme No 3, Goodnight Irene, I Dream of Jeanie, Benny Goodman’s Moonlight Sonata, and Lilac Time, maybe the Slow waltz from at the beginning of Act Iof Coppélia.75 Robyn says he composed as he played, and this may be so, although it is most perceptive of her to notice that, since she was only five when he died.
1885. Leslie Stewart Peterson was born at Eaglehawk, first child of Peter Peterson 2 and Ann Gellon. (Letter dated 26 April 2006 from Elizabeth Wallace, PO Box 380, Gol Gol NSW 2738).
[1885. James Holden and Henry Frost had expanded their Adelaide saddlery and leather goods business (refer: 1858) to repairing and building horse-drawn carriages, Refer: 1913].
2 December 1886. P Peterson 1 acquired the freehold of allotment 465D, Parish of Sandhurst, Eaglehawk, now probably 263 Eaglehawk Road, (Windmill Hill) California Gully. It is an elevated, very plain, symmetrical double-fronted weatherboarded timber house, with a skillion verandah, and a skillion lean-to addition at the rear. The roofing has been replaced by cement tiles. The Calverley house () is more architecturally pretentions, though not larger. (Refer: Mike Butcher 2 photos, 4 May 2005, in Peterson Research file, in the filing cabinet).
Peter was an original freeholder. This is 23 years after he was given as ‘occupier’, in the rate records. Noelene Wild kindly re-checked the available earlier rate assessments. The names are in columns headed ‘occupier’ and the specific owner of the property is only given if it is rented. No distinction is given as to freehold land, Crown land, or miner’s right. Even up to 1920, street numbers were not used in the Eaglehawk Borough Council rate-books. (From Noelene Wild, letter to RP, 14 May 2005).
1886. Ada Isabella (Hogg) O’Dea was born in South Melbourne. Youngest (?) child of Catherine. (Manuscript copy of Births Deaths and Marriages records and Catherine’s Application).
[1886. The first telephone directory, of Reuben Hamilton Donnelly in Chicago, 10 years after Alexander Graham Bell’s invention. Both companies still operate. No directory in Australia, until the 1920s].
[1886. WM & RR Foster arrived in Melbourne from New York and spent £48,000 on a new brewery in Victoria Parade and Albert Street, with a huge refrigeration plant, a new invention, able to store lager for 60 days at 35ºF and offered free ice to hotels taking their beer, which they launched on 1 February 1889 in mid-summer. They stayed only a year, then returned to USA. Refer: 1906 for the breweries amalgamating as Carlton & United Brewery].
10 October 1887. Margaret Peterson, 1st died aged 50 years. Buried at W(hite) Hills Cemetery, 11 October. Presbyterian Section, Common Grave, C6, No 10743. Qv. (White Hills Cemetery Register, Family Bible and O’Donohue & Hanson, No 6524, Vol 4, p 1087).
White Hills Cemetery
5 Victoria Street
PO Box 268
(03) 5446 1566
(03) 5446 9958
6 June 1888. William S. Peterson Died aged 20 years, in California Gully and was buried at White Hills Cemetery, Presbyterian, common grave, C6, No 10743. (White Hills Cemetery Register (as William Tough Peterson), Family Bible, held and O’Donohue & Hanson, No 6524, Vol 4, p 1087).
10 October 1888. An ‘In Memorium’ notice a year later: ‘In sad but loving remembrance of our dear mother Margaret Peterson, who departed this life at Windmill Hill, California Gully on the 10th October 1887. Also, our dear brother William, who departed this life at Windmill Hill, California Gully on the 6th June 1888. Inserted by the family. Two voices from our household gone, two hearts forever stilled. Two places vacant round our hearth, which never can be filled.’ (Betty May Jackman, Bendigo Advertiser Personal Notices. 1854-1880. Vol. 1, 1992 [qv]. From Noelene Wild, letter to RP, 10 October 1888. Family Bible. Held. Quoted in: O’Donohue & Hanson, No 6524, Vol 5, Addendum, p 1501).
1888. Albert Anderson Peterson 2 was born at Richmond. (Second child of Peter Peterson 2 and Ann Gellon. Letter dated 26 April 2006 from Elizabeth Wallace, PO Box 380, Gol Gol NSW 2738).
[1888. There were 700,000 pianos in Australia].
[1 February 1889. Despite the 1880s temperance movement, ‘local options’ (often defeated because of male franchise, the voters were men. The campaign to restrict hotels was the first to involve many women) and coffee palaces.
[1889. USA brothers, William M & R R Foster new brewery in Victoria Parade and Albert Street, launched the first lager, their new cold Foster’s Lager with bottom-fermenting yeast, in mid-summer, embedding the notion in Australians of ice-cold beer. They stayed only a year, then returned to USA. Refer: 1886 for Fosters Brothers arriving and 1906 for the breweries amalgamating as Carlton & United Brewery. By 1918, beer could be transported around Australia, without deterioration. Refer also: 1854 and 1907].
[1889. Arthur Arnot invented the world’s first electric drill in Heffernan Lane, CBD].
[1889. George Eastman's heavy and unwieldy Edison Kinetograph camera recorded the first moving image, viewed through an Edison Kinetoscope].
72. Richard Aitken, Talbot and Clunes Conservation Study, for the Shire of Talbot and Clunes, Ministry for Planning and Environment 1988, in the SLV.
73. Epacdon, 2008.
74. Knox, Alistair, A Middle Class Man: An Autobiography, chapter 6 [Unpublished].
75. Coppélia, a comic ballet to the music of Léo Delibes, with libretto by Charles Nuitter, premiered in 1870, and eventually it became the most-performed ballet at the Opéra, Paris. Valse lente, or “Slow waltz”, is played at the beginning of Act I.